Free settlers were moving to Australia, and convicts were increasingly employed to work for them. As convicts either finished their sentence, or were pardoned, they were able to earn a living and sustain themselves through jobs and land grants. By the mid-1830s, most convicts were assigned to private employment.
What was the punishment for the convicts sent to Australia?
The most common court-authorized punishment was flogging by the “cat-o’-nine-tails,” a whip with nine leather cords. Convicts found guilty of minor offenses typically got 25 lashes on the back. More serious offenders drew up to 300 lashes, which would leave them gravely wounded.
What problems did convicts experience after they arrived in Australia?
For newly arrived convicts, the environment of Sydney was strange and very different to what they were used to. During summer, days of unbearable heat were often followed by ferocious thunderstorms and torrential rain.
Were convicts killed in Australia?
Why the deaths? Most Aboriginal convicts simply did not survive for very long in captivity. In their first year of incarceration, Aboriginal convicts died at ten times the rate of male convicts shipped to Van Diemen’s Land from Britain.
What punishments did convicts get on the First Fleet?
In colonial Australia, there were three main punishments for male convicts; the wheel, irons and floggings. Often these were inflicted in ways that suggested that justice, rehabilitation, and societal protection were not important considerations.
What did female convicts do?
Convict women were employed in domestic service, washing and on government farms, and were expected to find their own food and lodging. Punishment for those who transgressed was humiliating and public. Exile itself was considered a catalyst for reform.
Why did the British bring convicts to Australia?
Between 1788 and 1868 more than 162,000 convicts were transported to Australia. … The convicts were transported as punishment for crimes committed in Britain and Ireland. In Australia their lives were hard as they helped build the young colony.
What happened to convicts after their sentence?
Conditional pardons required that freed convicts remain in the colony whereas absolute pardons allowed freed convicts to return to the UK. New South Wales Convict Registers of Conditional and Absolute Pardons 1791-1867 provides details about the convicts, such as: Convict’s name. Ship and date of arrival.
How were female convicts treated in Australia?
Despite the belief that convict women during the transportation period were all prostitutes, no women were transported for that offence. The majority of women sent to Australia were convicted for what would now be considered minor offences (such as petty theft), most did not receive sentences of more than seven years.
When did transportation of convicts end in Australia?
On 9 January 1868 the convict transport Hougoumont arrived at the port of Fremantle. On board were 269 convicts, the last to be sent to Western Australia. The ship’s arrival marked the end of 80 years of continuous penal transportation to the Australian continent.
What happened to sick or injured convicts?
Sick or injured convicts might be sent to the hospital, which was next to the Hyde Park Barracks. If they were unable to walk, carts and wheelbarrows were used to move them. The Barracks (building on the far right) and the hospital (second from right) were closely linked.
Who was the most famous convict?
Top Five Famous Convicts transported to Australia
- Francis Greenway. Francis Greenway arrived in Sydney in 1814. …
- Mary Wade. The youngest ever convict to be transported to Australia at the age of 11. …
- John ‘Red’ Kelly. …
- Mary Bryant. …
- Frank the Poet.
Who was the youngest convict sent to Australia?
John Hudson, described as ‘sometimes a chimney sweeper’, was the youngest known convict to sail with the First Fleet. Voyaging on board the Friendship to NSW, the boy thief was 13 years old on arrival at Sydney Cove. He was only nine when first sentenced.
Why were female convicts given less rations?
Female convicts and marine wives received 2/3 of male convict ration. In order that they could tend their own gardens, convicts did not have to work on Saturday afternoons. This means a reduction of 12lb for every 100lb of beef and 8lb for every 100lb of pork.
What did female convicts wear?
The women wore clothes such as ‘slops’ in blue or brown serge, or a stuff gown, white apron and straw bonnet for Sunday with a jacket and a coarse apron for weekdays. Children remained with their mothers at the Factory until the age of four, at which time they were placed in Orphan Schools.
What crimes did female convicts commit?
The crime of stealing clothes, along with jewellery, fabrics, and other household items, was particularly common among female convicts, especially those who worked as domestic servants or prostitutes.