The First Fleet carried the first white settlers to Australia. Before 1787 convicts from England had been sent to British colonies in North America. … The First Fleet was the first group of ships to carry convicts to the British colony in Australia.
What was the purpose of the First Fleet?
The First Fleet, consisting of 11 vessels, was the largest single contingent of ships to sail into the Pacific Ocean. Its purpose was to find a convict settlement on the east coast of Australia, at Botany Bay.
Who was important on the First Fleet?
On 13 May 1787 the fleet under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip, with over 1400 people (convicts, marines, sailors, civil officers and free settlers), left from Portsmouth, England and took a journey of over 24,000 kilometres (15,000 mi) and over 250 days to eventually arrive in Botany Bay, New South Wales, where …
What was the first purpose of Australia?
Australia, once known as New South Wales, was originally planned as a penal colony. In October 1786, the British government appointed Arthur Phillip captain of the HMS Sirius, and commissioned him to establish an agricultural work camp there for British convicts.
What did convicts do in Australia?
Convicts were a source of labour to build roads, bridges, courthouses, hospitals and other public buildings, or to work on government farms, while educated convicts may have been given jobs such as record-keeping for the government administration. Female convicts, on the other hand, were generally employed as domestic …
What did the First Fleet convicts do in Australia?
Many were skilled carpenters, blacksmiths or cobblers (shoemakers). , convicts worked to turn large wooden logs into smaller timber planks for buildings. They also made doors, window frames, shutters and roof shingles. Down at the edge of Sydney Harbour, convicts built boats and made rope and sails for ships.
How did convicts help shape Australia?
Exported: Among those sent to Australia were the Luddites, textile workers who broke machinery and burned mills to protest against factory conditions. Many convicts worked on government farms, growing food for the new settlement. Others were assigned to land owners.
What route did the First Fleet take to get to Australia?
The First Fleet left Portsmouth, England on 13 May 1787. The entire journey took 252 days (a little over 8 months). From England, the fleet sailed to Australia making stops in Santa Cruz, Rio de Janeiro and Cape Town. They arrived in Botany Bay in mid-January 1788.
When did the 1st Fleet arrived in Australia?
On May 13, 1787, the “First Fleet” of military leaders, sailors, and convicts set sail from Portsmouth, England, to found the first European colony in Australia, Botany Bay.
What was Australia first called?
New Holland (Dutch: Nieuw-Holland) is a historical European name for mainland Australia. The name was first applied to Australia in 1644 by the Dutch seafarer Abel Tasman.
Why was Australia important to the British Empire?
By colonising Australia Britain gained an important base for its ships in the Pacific Ocean. It also gained an important resource in terms of being somewhere to send convicts. Until the American Revolution Britain could send convicts to the Thirteen Colonies.
Who really discovered Australia?
While Indigenous Australians have inhabited the continent for tens of thousands of years, and traded with nearby islanders, the first documented landing on Australia by a European was in 1606. The Dutch explorer Willem Janszoon landed on the western side of Cape York Peninsula and charted about 300 km of coastline.
What did female convicts do?
Convict women were employed in domestic service, washing and on government farms, and were expected to find their own food and lodging. Punishment for those who transgressed was humiliating and public. Exile itself was considered a catalyst for reform.
What happened when the First Fleet arrived in Australia?
After a voyage of three months the First Fleet arrived at Botany Bay on 24 January 1788. … On 26 January two French frigates of the Lapérouse expedition sailed into Botany Bay as the British were relocating to Sydney Cove in Port Jackson. The isolation of the Aboriginal people in Australia had finished.
What did female convicts wear?
The women wore clothes such as ‘slops’ in blue or brown serge, or a stuff gown, white apron and straw bonnet for Sunday with a jacket and a coarse apron for weekdays. Children remained with their mothers at the Factory until the age of four, at which time they were placed in Orphan Schools.